ZigBee Technology Presentation



ZigBee Technology
presented by Qualitia –

This presentation shows the use of ZigBee technology.

Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios, such as for home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection. Hence, Zigbee is a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity (i.e., personal area) wireless ad hoc network.

Contents:
Introduction
History
General Characteristics
Applications
Architecture
How ZigBee Works
ZigBee Device Types
ZigBee Frequencies
ZigBee vs. Bluetooth

Conclusion:
ZigBee requires the least power supply, contains the most nodes, and costs the lowest And Specially designed for networks of low-cost, multi-nodes and low power consumption.

SCRIPT:

ZigBee Technology.
presented by Qualitia.

Introduction to ZigBee.

An IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks, which need wireless connection.
Was conceived in 1998, standardized in 2003, and revised in 2006.
Low power consumption limits transmission distances to 10–100 meters line-of-sight, depending on power output and environmental characteristics.

History.
ZigBee 2004 specification:
Zigbee v1.0 (r06), April 15, 2005
ZigBee v1.1 (r07), September 4, 2005

ZigBee 2006 specification (r13):
October 9, 2006

ZigBee 2007 specification (r17):
October 19, 2007
ZigBee/ZigBee Pro

General Characteristics
Low battery consumption.
Low cost.
Low data rate.
Easy to implement.
Supports up to 65,000 nodes connected in a network.
Can automatically establish its own network.
Uses small packets compared to WiFi and Bluetooth.

Applications
Home Entertainment and Control
Wireless sensor networks
Industrial control

Applications
Embedded sensing
Medical data collection
Smoke and intruder warning

Applications
Building automation
Remote wireless microphone configuration

Architecture
Consists of three different types of devices such as zigbee coordinator, router and end device.
The coordinator is responsible for handling and storing the information while performing receiving and transmitting data operations. 
Zigbee routers act as intermediary devices that permit data to pass to and fro through them to other devices.
End devices have limited functionality to communicate with the parent nodes such that the battery power is saved as shown in the figure.

How ZigBee Works

Physical Layer:
Performs modulation and demodulation operations up on transmitting and receiving signals respectively.
MAC Layer:
Responsible for reliable transmission of data by accessing different networks with the carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA).
Network Layer:
Takes care of all network related operations such as network setup, end device connection and disconnection to network, routing, device configurations, etc.

Application Support Sub-Layer:
Enables the services necessary for ZigBee device object and application objects to interface with the network layers for data managing services.
Responsible for matching two devices according to their services and needs.
Application Framework:
Provides two types of data services as key value pair and generic message services. 
Generic message is a developer defined structure, whereas the key value pair is used for getting attributes within the application objects.

ZigBee Device Types
ZigBee Coordinator (ZC):
forms the root of the network tree and might bridge to other networks.
stores information about the network, including acting as the Trust Center & repository for security keys.
ZigBee Router (ZR):
act as an intermediate router, passing on data from other devices.
ZigBee End Device (ZED):
Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node.
requires the least amount of memory, and, therefore, can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC.

ZigBee Frequencies
Specifies operation in the unlicensed 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz (worldwide) with 250 kbit/s per channel.
902 to 928 MHz (Americas and Australia) with 40 kbit/s per channel.
868 to 868.6 MHz (Europe) with 20 kbit/s per channel.

ZigBee vs. Bluetooth
ZigBee:
Aims at automation.
Uses low data rates, low power consumption on small packet devices.
Support longer range devices
Instant network join time is 30 milliseconds.

Bluetooth:
Aims at connectivity of mobile devices in close proximity.
Uses higher data rates, higher power consumption on large packet devices.
Support shorter range devices.
Instant network join time is 3 seconds.

Conclusion
ZigBee requires the least power supply, contains the most nodes, and costs the lowest.
Specially designed for networks of low-cost, multi-nodes and low power consumption.

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